Advances in Basic Medical Sciences <center> <h1><strong>The Official Journal of Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, </strong></h1> <h1><strong>Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan.</strong></h1> <p><strong>ABMS</strong> is a Bi-Annual Journal of Innovations &amp; Advances in Basic Medical Sciences. The Journal aims to add significant medical literature for the improvement in the field of medicine. The Journal provides Swift, Affordable, Prompt, Open Access and Blind Peer-Reviewed Publications.</p> <p class="p1">The International Centre for the registration of serial publications (CIEPS – ISSN International Centre), located in Paris 75003 (France), 45 rue de Turbigo, certifies that <strong>ISSN Print <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2706-7041</a></strong> and <strong>ISSN</strong> <strong>Online</strong> <a title="ISSN online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>2410-6283</strong></a> are assigned to ABMS. It is also Indexed by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources</strong> </a>(ROAD) and included in <a href="">Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region</a> (<strong>IMEMR</strong>).</p> <p class="p1"><strong>ABMS is in line with the standards of ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) and is a Member of ICMJE <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a> | <sub>Hosted by</sub> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Annals of Internal Medicine</a> / <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">American College of Physicians</a>, USA.</strong></p> <p class="p1">The Journal routinely screen article submissions for plagiarism and uses the academic software Turnitin for this purpose and takes editorial decision to reject the submission if the plagiarism (Similarity Index) is more than 18% (Overall) or more than 5% from a single source.</p> <p class="p1">There are no processing, submission or publication charges of the manuscripts submitted to ABMS. </p> <p class="p1"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="cc:attributionURL noopener noreferrer">ABMS </a>© 2022 <a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" width="80" height="15" /></a> by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="cc:attributionURL noopener noreferrer">Khyber Medical University Peshawar, Pakistan </a> This work is licensed under <a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener noreferrer">Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International</a></p> </center> en-US (Dr. Najma Baseer) (Muhammad Sohail) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Genitourinary Anomalies in Patients with Anorectal Malformation <p><strong>objective</strong></p> <p>To determine the frequency of genitourinary abnormalities in patients having anorectal malformations.</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong></p> <p>This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from August 2017 To February 2018. Any child (both genders) with a clinically apparent diagnosis of anorectal malformation having age 1 month or less (Neonate) was included in the study. Any patient who has undergone any surgical intervention elsewhere for anorectal malformation and cases of intersex or genital ambiguity were excluded. The level of the anorectal lesion was determined by radiographic evaluation. Renal ultrasound and intravenous-pyelography (IVP) and Voiding Cysto-uretherography (VCUG) were performed for urinary tract malformations in all cases with high-level anorectal lesions. In low-level anorectal lesions ultrasound was performed initially with IVP and VCUG performed later if needed to investigate any anomaly (dilated ureters, hydronephrosis) found on ultrasound.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>A total of 90 patients were included in this study. There were 68.89% males and females were 31.11%. The male to female ratio was 2.2:1. The average age of the patients was 5.03±6.11 days. The frequency of genitourinary abnormalities among children with anorectal malformations was found in 56(62.82%) patients with vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) being the most common anomaly (23.3%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Anorectal Malformation patients should be screened for urogenital anomalies. Early detection of the associated anomalies will result in proper management and better outcome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anorectal malformations, Genitourinary anomalies, Vesicoureteric reflux</p> Farooq Abdullah, Muhammad Daraz, Khawar Saeed, Fayaz Ur Rahman, Muhammad Uzair, Nadia Gulnaz Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Glycated Hemoglobin Level and Clinical Parameters of Periodontal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>To correlate between Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and clinical parameters of Periodontal Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong><strong> </strong></p> <p>This comparative study was performed from November 2015 to May 2016 in Peshawar. A total of 56 participants suffering from T2DM and periodontal disease were included in the study. All participants were examined for periodontitis by using four parameters Wiesbaden –Germany ‘’ kit. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Among 56 subjects, 39.3% had good glycemic control with HbA1c in the range of 6.1-7.0, whereas 60.7% had uncontrolled diabetes with HbA1c of more than 7.0. In terms of Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) score, the controlled (HbA1c =6.1-7.0) and uncontrolled diabetes groups (HbA1c&gt;7) differed significantly (Chi-Square test <em>p</em>=0.013). Similarly, both the groups differed significantly in terms of Mean Periodontal Disease Index (PDI) (p=0.038, at a significant level of <em>p</em>&lt;0.05) and Periodontal Pocket Depth (PPD) (<em>p</em>-value measured by the t-test p=0.022). Mean number of missing teeth due to periodontal disease was noted as 4.88±1.42 in the uncontrolled diabetes group and 2.82±1.26 in controlled diabetes (<em>p</em>= 0.29). A strong significant positive correlation of HbA1c level with PBI (r<sub>s</sub>=0.595), PDI (r<sub>s</sub>=0.578) and PPD (r<sub>s</sub>=0.680) was found. However, a weak but significant correlation (r<sub>s</sub>=0.289, p=0.041) was also found between HbA1c level and the number of lost teeth due to periodontal disease.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>We concluded that significant correlation exists between Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and clinical parameters of Periodontal Disease in Type 2 Diabetics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Type 2 Diabetics, Periodontal disease, Glycated hemoglobin</p> Sara Mariyum, Amjad Iqbal , Seher Obaid , Munazza Khattak, Khadija Mariyum, Khola Mariyum Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of Degree of Carrying Angle with Dominent Arm of Medical Students <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>The objective of this study was to obtain gender-specific data in variations of carrying angle on full extension of the elbow and its correlation with the dominant arm.</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong></p> <p>One hundred and eighty healthy volunteers participated in the study with an equal number of males (n=90) and females (n=90). The average age of both ranged from 18 to 22 years. All individuals with normal and healthy architecture with no history of arm or forearm fracture or surgery involving the elbow, no history of neural defects, or congenital variance were included in the study. Carrying angles of elbows of both dominant and non-dominant sides were measured in the case of each volunteer with the help of a Goniometer.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The results showed that the carrying angle was found to be greater in females (14.75±1.2) as compared to males (12.96±1.4). Also, the dominant arm of both males and females displayed an increased value of carrying angle than the non-dominant one which was statistically significant (<em>p</em>=.001)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Hence in this study, it was found the carrying angle at the elbow is greater in females and is associated significantly with the dominance of the arm.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Carrying angle, Goniometer, Dominant and Non-dominant arm</p> zainab Rehman, Shazia iftikhar, Nazish Waheed, Falak Naz, Shagufta Sultana, Sadia Shaukat Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Penicillium Digitatum in Production of Single Cell Proteins from Citrus Reticulablanca Peels <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>The potential use of kinnow peels as a substrate for <em>Penicillium digitatum</em> to manufacture single-cell protein was investigated in this work.</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong></p> <p>Sulfuric acid in concentrations of 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 N were used to pre-treat the substrate. The kinnow peels hydrolysate (KPH) medium and glucose supplemented kinnow peels hydrolysate medium were employed in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Kinnow peels hydrolysate produced 2.28%, 2.23%, and 2.07% crude protein at 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 N per 20g of substrate utilized, respectively. Furthermore, on supplemented kinnow peels hydrolysate medium with inorganic nitrogen sources at 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 N, the percentage of protein in single-cell protein was only 2.00%, 2.04%, and 2.15%, respectively. At 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45N, glucose was added to the augmented kinnow peels hydrolysate medium, yielding 2.12%, 2.02%, and 2.12%, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There was no effect of digestion normalities in case of KPH. The effect of normalities was noted when kinnow peels digest was supplemented with glucose. There was a decreasing trend in SCP production with an increase in normalities. No effect was noted when KPH was combined with M.M and glucose.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong></p> <p>Single Cell Proteins, Hydrolysate, <em>Penicillium digitatum,</em> KPH, Amino Acids, kinnow peels</p> Hamad Ullah Khattak, Sahibzada Mehmood Ahmad, Shandana Zulfiqar, Muhammad Tayyeb, Muhammad Junaid Khan, Aibad Ullah Khattak Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 E-Learning Impact on Medical Students during COVID-19 Pandemic: Students’ Perspective <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>To determine the satisfaction level, barriers, benefits, and challenges of medical students of Independent Medical College Faisalabad regarding online teaching during pandemic of COVID-19<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong><strong> </strong></p> <p>This cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2021 to May 2021. In order to measure the satisfaction levels, barriers, benefits and challenge of eLearning of Independent Medical College Faisalabad medical students a web-based questionnaire consisting of 23 questions was generated using google form. Through various digital online platforms (E-mailing/E-messaging) the questionnaire form was shared with the participants. SPSS was used to analyze calculated data; presentation of data is carried in term of percentages (%) and frequencies (N).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>A total of 302 medical students participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 21.3 years. Among them 70.2% (n= 212) consist of male and 29.8% (n=212) were female. The majority of the participants (28.1%) were studying in 2nd-year MBBS. Among electronic device used for online study laptop was used as major electronic device (39.1%). The overall satisfaction index for respondents was 28.4%.<strong> S</strong>low/weak internet connection was main challenge reported by 54% students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Overall, there was dissatisfaction and negative comments regarding interaction among students, practical learning, focus on study, and technological/infrastructural flaws.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19, Online teaching, Satisfaction levels, Performance, Medical Student</p> Qamar Yasmeen Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Saliva is a Non-Invasive Body Fluid for Rapid Detection of Coronavirus <p>Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been rendered the toughest pandemic of the current century.<sup>1</sup> Like other zoonotic viruses (anthrax) the Coronavirus has been transmitted from vertebrate animals to human beings and further spreads through direct, indirect contact transmission. The associated symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, tiredness, and impairment of taste, and more adversely chest pain and difficulty in breathing or other respiratory diseases.<sup>2</sup> The current SARSCoV2 began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and now many variants of them have been reported in many countries around the world. Coronaviruses are positive-sense single stranded RNA viruses. Coronaviruses belong to the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae that has been divided into i.e. alpha, beta, gamma, and delta genera.<sup>3</sup></p> Nawshad Muhammad, Amir Khan, Inayat Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000