Advances in Basic Medical Sciences <center> <h1><strong>The Official Journal of Institute of Basic Medical Sciences</strong> </h1> <h1><strong>Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan.</strong></h1> <p> </p> <p><strong>ABMS</strong> is a Bi-Annual Journal of Innovations &amp; Advances in Basic Medical Sciences. The Journal aims to add significant medical literature for the improvement in the field of medicine. The Journal provides Swift, Affordable, Prompt, Open Access and Blind Peer-Reviewed &amp; Editorial Reviewed Publications.</p> <p class="p1">The International Centre for the registration of serial publications (CIEPS – ISSN International Centre), located in Paris 75003 (France), 45 rue de Turbigo, certifies that <strong>ISSN Print <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2706-7041</a></strong> and <strong>ISSN</strong> <strong>Online</strong> <a title="ISSN online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>2410-6283</strong></a> are assigned to ABMS. 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This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> </center> Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University en-US Advances in Basic Medical Sciences 2410-6283 COVID19 and cell mediated immunity; the missing link of disease severity <p>COVID19 and cell mediated immunity; the missing link of disease severity</p> Muhammad Omar Malik Syed Hamid Habib Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 5 1 1 2 Effect of Academic Stress on Physiological and Biochemical Parameters among Medical Students <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Objective</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">The primary aim of this study was to understand the effects of a stressed academic<br>environment in medical students through evaluating different physical and biochemical<br>parameters.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Methodology</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">This study is longitudinal and based on a convenient sampling method, including 50 volunteer<br>medical students of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad with mean age 21-25yrs (24±1) in both<br>stressed and unstressed states. Physical and biochemical parameters were evaluated by measuring<br>serum Cortisol and plasma Serotonin levels by using ELISA kits. Data were analyzed by using SPSS-<br>22.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">Results showed an insignificant difference of Serum Cortisol (6.6±4.2ug/dl) in stressed and<br>(7.0±4.7ug/dl) unstressed states with (p=0.72). , plasma serotonin values in stressed<br>(149±140ng/ml) and unstressed (125±108ng/ml) with (p =.47) Parameters like blood pressure (both<br>systolic and diastolic) with a p-value of &lt;.01 showed significant difference during the examination.<br>However, other variables like Age, Height, Weight, BMI (p= .946), Heart Rate (p= .149) showed no<br>significant difference.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">The study concludes that little to moderate levels of changes of serum cholesterol and plasma<br>serotonin values may occur due to the academic pressure on students, which can affect their<br>professional capabilities<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Key words</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">Academic stress, Body Mass Index, Serum Cortisol, Plasma Serotonin, ELISA</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kinza Sammar Inayat Shah Maheen Shah Raeesa naz usman nazir Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 5 1 3 6 Upper Respiratory Allergic Symptoms And Effects Of Coal Dust On Pulmonary Function Tests Of Individuals Working In Coal Mines, Near Quetta, Baluchistan, Pakistan <p><strong> <span class="fontstyle0">Objective<br></span></strong><span class="fontstyle1">This research was carried in order to know hazardous outcomes of coal mine dust on upper<br>respiratory system and their pulmonary function tests.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Methodology</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">In this longitudinal cross sectional study, we evaluated upper respiratory allergic symptoms and<br>pulmonary function tests deterioration cause by coal dust exposure in coal mines workers near<br>Quetta, Baluchistan (from October 2018 to March 2019). A total of 336 individuals working in coal<br>mines meeting the preset selection criteria were selected and 41 normal healthy individuals of<br>same age and sex were selected from the general public of the same region who had never been<br>exposed to coal dust/coal mines and served as control group.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">Their pulmonary functions were recorded by (SX MULTI SPIRO, USA) and for the analysis of<br>data SPSS version 18 was employed. The result shown in frequency and percentages, Chi<br>Square test was used and </span><span class="fontstyle3">p </span><span class="fontstyle1">value of &lt; 0.05 was considered as significant.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">Unprotected exposure to coal dust for longer period of time has bad impact on pulmonary<br>function test and biochemical parameters and is associated with increased frequency of upper<br>respiratory tract allergic symptoms.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Key words</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">Quetta, Coal mine, Pulmonary Function Test, Microspheres</span></p> Zafar Ahmad Khan Muhammad Imran Aslam Muhammad Hashir Ahmad Muhammad Tayyab Ahmad Hajira Ishaq Zahoor Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 5 1 7 10 Analysis of Caesarean Section Rates in a Tertiary Care Hospital through Robson's Ten Group Classification System (RTGCS) <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Objective</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">To analyse the trend of caesarean sections at a tertiary care hospital according to Robson’s Ten<br>Group Classification System<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Methodology</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">This retrospective study was conducted at the department of obstetrics and gynecology Unit “B”<br>Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from January to December 2019.<br>Data for all births including live births and stillbirths by C-section (n=1538) was extracted from<br>the patient’s record and grouped into Robson’s 10 categories. Data was analyzed using<br>descriptive statistics and the outcome expressed as frequencies and percentages.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">During the study period, 5609 women were delivered in this hospital. The overall cesarean section<br>was 27.42%. The leading contributor to the overall cesarean section rate was group 5 i.e. women<br>with previous cesarean section, the contribution being 6.63% of the overall 27.42%.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">The Robson classification is an effective tool to identify the areas/factors which significantly<br>contribute to the high C-section rate and accordingly provide basis to formulate strategies aimed<br>to decrease the C-section rate.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Key words</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">Caesarean section, Robson’s Ten Group Classification System</span></p> Rubina Akhtar Ghazala Shams Madiha Iqbal Basharat Ahmed Zara Alam Jan Aisha Nawaz Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 5 1 11 14 One-Year Histopathological Audit of Thyroid Lesions at Tertiary Care Hospital of Peshawar <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Objective</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">To know the number of various thyroid lesions both neoplastic and non-neoplastic in a tertiary<br>care hospital of Peshawar.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Methodology</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">It was a retrospective record-based study conducted at Lady reading Hospital (LRH) Peshawar<br>Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Histopathological reports of all the thyroidectomy specimens received from<br>1</span><span class="fontstyle1">st </span><span class="fontstyle1">January 2019 to 31</span><span class="fontstyle1">st </span><span class="fontstyle1">December 2019 in the Department of Pathology were included in this study.<br>Data regarding patient’s age, sex, type of thyroidectomy and histopathological diagnosis was<br>collected from the record of the laboratory, recorded into Microsoft excel and analyzed by statistical<br>methods.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">This study included a total of 120 thyroidectomy. The highest frequency of lesions was seen in<br>the fourth and fifth decades (32.74%) with a female predominance (88.38%). Non neoplastic<br>lesions were 106 (88.7%) while neoplastic lesions were 14 (11.7%). Nodular colloid goiter was<br>the commonest non neoplastic lesion while papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most common<br>neoplastic lesion. Follicular adenoma was the most common benign lesion.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">Histopathological audit, of various thyroid lesions is important both for surgeons and<br>pathologists to make them aware about the common and uncommon thyroid lesions in the<br>setup. Moreover, it can also be used for preventive strategies for various thyroid diseases.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Key words</strong><br></span><span class="fontstyle1">Thyroidectomy, thyroid lesions, neoplastic, thyroiditis, papillary carcinoma</span> </p> Mir Attaullah Hamid Ullah Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 5 1 15 18 Antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Artemisia Roxburghiana along with its qualitative and quantitative phytochemical Screening <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;The objective of study was to conduct different assays for exploring pharmacological properties of medicinal plant <em>Artemisia roxburghiana</em> along with its phytochemical screening.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p><span class="fontstyle0">Qualitative and quantitative tests phytochemical were carried out using different methods for<br>total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Antioxidants capacity, total reducing power assay (TRP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Formalin induced right hand paw edema method was used for investigation of anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-diabetic study was done by both in-vitro (α amylase inhibition assay) and in-vivo (Alloxan induced anti-diabetic study).</span><strong> <br> </strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p><span class="fontstyle0">The plant revealed the presence of active primary and secondary phytochemicals and exhibits significant anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. Radial scavenging activity (2, 2’-Diphenyl Picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total reducing power (TRP) of </span><span class="fontstyle2">Artemisia roxburghiana </span><span class="fontstyle0">extracts at final concentration of 400 μg/mL is considerably significant. The presence of alkaloids, phenolic, flavonoids, terpenoids, reducing sugars, glycosides, steroids, carbohydrates and steroids was seen in all the extracts as well as effects of amylase etc.</span><strong> <br> </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p><span class="fontstyle0">This plant is a source of valuable natural products for pharmaceutical industries and can be<br>used for identification and isolation of novel compounds which leads toward drug discovery for<br>treatment of more serious and complicated diseases.</span><strong><br> </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong></p> <p>Artemisia, Antidiabetic, DPPH, Antiinflammatory, TAC, Alloxan, Formalin</p> Sadia Bibi Zahoor Ahmed Shahnaz Dilawar Muhammad Iqbal Shahzad H Sheikh Sumbal Khalid Muhammad Tayyab Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Advances in Basic Medical Sciences 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 5 1 19 24